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Zinc Deficiency
Zinc deficiency in humans results from reduced dietary intake, inadequate absorption,  increased loss or increased
use.  The most common cause is reduced dietary intake; as much as 25% of the world's population is at risk.  
Zinc
deficiency
affects about 2.2 billion people around the world.

Zinc plays an essential role in numerous biochemical pathways.  Zinc deficiency affects many organ systems,
including the skin, gastro-intestinal tract, central nervous system & immune, skeletal & reproductive systems.  A lack
of
zinc has numerous manifestations, the most common of which are an increased rates of diarrhœa, pneumonia and
malaria.

Zinc deficiency can be classified as acute, as may occur during prolonged inappropriate zinc-free total parenteral
nutrition or
chronic, as may occur in dietary deficiency or inadequate absorption.

Zinc deficiency can also be considered as mild as typically accompanies dietary deficiency or severe, as typically
accompanies defective absorption.


Mouth.  Zinc deficiency can manifest as non-specific oral ulceration, stomatitis (painful mouth) or white tongue
coating.  Rarely, it can cause
angular cheilitis (sores at the corners of the mouth) and burning mouth syndrome
(mouth or tongue soreness).

Smell and taste.  Severe zinc deficiency may disturb the sense of smell and taste.

Immune system.  Impaired immune function in people with zinc deficiency can lead to the   development of
respiratory, gastro-intestinal or other infections.  During inflammation, there is an increased cellular demand for
zinc
and impaired
zinc homeostasis from zinc deficiency is associated with chronic inflammation.
Dietary Sources of Zinc

These include:

  • Oysters, crab, lobster and other shellfish (oysters contain more zinc per serving than any other food)
  • Red meat and poultry (these are the main sources of zinc for many)
  • Pulses, nuts and legumes
  • Wholegrain cereals
  • Fortified breakfast cereals
  • Dairy products such as cheese


Zinc Deficiency

Risk factors
:

  • Inadequate diet
  • Gastro-intestinal diseases including ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome and chronic
    diarrhœa
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Alcoholism (decreases zinc absorption and increases urinary zinc excretion)
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Diabetes
  • Pregnancy and breast-feeding
  • Vegetarian diet
  • People taking large amounts of iron supplementation (iron can interfere with zinc absorption)

A diet which is high in
phytate-containing whole grains, high in foods grown in zinc deficient soil or high in processed
foods containing little or no
zinc can result in zinc deficiency.


Useful Websites:

Patient

The Nutrition Society

National Institutes of Health

Mayo Clinic

Dr Axe
Last Updated 27th October 2016